GEOGRAPHY AND POPULATION
Total area: 447,400 sq km (Central Asian, Border countries: Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Afghanistan).
Population: 27,606,007 (July 2009 est.); 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.); Population growth rate: 0.935% (2009 est.)
Capital: Tashkent (population: ca. 2.537.500, area: 334,8 km2)
The economy is predominantly agricultural. Uzbekistan is now the world’s second-largest cotton exporter and fifth largest producer. Cotton production is a monopoly of the state and the major source of export earnings. According to different independent sources the government mobilizes from 1.6 to 2.5 million children from 10 to 15 for cotton harvest each year.
Other major export earners include gold, natural gas, and oil.
GDP: $71.84 billion (2008 est.); GDP per capita: $2,600 (2008 est.)
GDP real growth rate: 9% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate: 1% (2008 est.); 0.8% (2007 est.)
note: officially measured by the Ministry of Labor, plus another 20% underemployed. Hidden unemployment is widely-spread in Uzbekistan, since most of the unemployed are not registered.
Population below poverty line: 33% (2004 est.)
Minimum wage: 37 680 UZ SUM(ca. 17 EURO)
Export commodities: cotton, gold, energy products, mineral fertilizers, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, textiles, food products, machinery, automobiles
Export partners: Ukraine 27.3%, Russia 19.6%, Turkey 7.5%, Kazakhstan 5.9%, Bangladesh 5%, China 4.3%, Japan 4.1% (2008)
Import commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, ferrous and non-ferrous metals
Import partners: Russia 24.7%, China 15.4%, South Korea 13.6%, Ukraine 7.2%, Germany 5.5%, Kazakhstan 4.9%, Turkey 4.1% (2008)
Government: Presidential republic
Independence: September 1, 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Constitution is adopted on December 8, 1992
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since March 24, 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet). According to the Constitution the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan is head of state and executive authority in the Republic of Uzbekistan. The President of the Republic of Uzbekistan simultaneously serves as Chairman of the Cabinet of Ministers. He also serves as the Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces of the Republic.
Head of government: Prime Minister Shavkat MIRZIYOYEV (since December 11, 2003); First Deputy Prime Minister Rustam AZIMOV (since January 2, 2008), Minister of Finance, Head of Complex on the issues of Macroeconomic development, the structural transformations in the economy and integrated development of regions.
Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
Elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term; previously a five-year term, extended by the constitutional amendment in 2002); election last held December 23, 2007 (next to be held in 2014); prime minister, ministers, and deputy ministers appointed by the president
Election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote – Islom KARIMOV 88.1%, Asliddin RUSTAMOV 3.2%, Dilorom T0SHMUHAMEDOVA 2.9%, Akmal SAIDOV 2.6%
Parliament: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis consists of an upper house or Senate (100 seats; 84 members are elected by regional governing councils and 16 appointed by the president; to serve five-year terms) and a lower house or Legislative Chamber (120 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
Elections: last held December 26, 2004 and January 9, 2005 (next to be held in December 2009)
election results: Senate – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – NA; Legislative Chamber – percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – LDPU 41, NDP 32, Fidokorlar 17, MTP 11, Adolat 9, unaffiliated 10
note: all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly).
Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Dilorom TOSHMUHAMEDOVA]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milliy Tiklanish) or MTP [Hurshid DOSMUHAMMEDOV]; Fidokorlar National Democratic Party (Self-Sacrificers) [Ahtam TURSUNOV]; Liberal Democratic Party of Uzbekistan or LDPU [Adham SHADMANOV; People’s Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Asliddin RUSTAMOV]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Agrarian and Entrepreneurs’ Party [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurahim POLAT, chairman]; Committee for the Protection of Human Rights [Marat ZAHIDOV]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] (was banned 9 December 1992); Ezgulik Human Rights Society [Vasila INOYATOVA]; Free Farmers’ Party or Ozod Dehqonlar [Nigora HIDOYATOVA]; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Talib YAKUBOV, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Organization of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Mazlum; Sunshine Coalition [Sanjar UMAROV, chairman]
Participation in the international organizations
ADB, CIS, CSTO, EAEC (suspended), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ISO, ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Sources: CIA World Factbook, The Governmental Portal of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Constitution of the Republic of Uzbekistan, Ferghana.ru Information Agency.